Project STORMFURY was an ambitious experimental program of research on hurricane modification carried out between 1962 and 1983. The proposed modification technique involved artificial stimulation of convection outside the eyewall through seeding with silver iodide. The invigorated convection, it was argued, would compete with the original eyewall, lead to reformation of the eyewall at larger radius, and thus, through partial conservation of angular momentum, produce a decrease in the strongest winds.
Since a hurricane’s destructive potential increases rapidly as its strongest winds become stronger, a reduction as small as 10% would have been worthwhile. Modification was attempted in four hurricanes on eight different days. On four of these days, the winds decreased by between 10 and 30%, The lack of response on the other days was interpreted to be the result of faulty execution of the seeding or of poorly selected subjects.
These promising results came into question in the mid-1980s because observations in unmodified hurricanes indicated:
- That cloud seeding had little prospect of success because hurricanes contained too much natural ice and too little supercooled water.
- That the positive results inferred from the seeding experiments in the 1960s stemmed from inability to discriminate between the expected results of human in
Willoughby, H. E., D. P. Jorgensen, R. A. Black, and S. L. Rosenthal, 1985: Project STORMFURY, A Scientific Chronicle, 1962-1983, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 66, 505-514. tervention and the natural behavior of hurricanes.
“Lignum vitae” is Latin for “wood of life”
Master clockmaker John Harrison used lignum vitae in the bearings and gears of his pendulum clocks and his first three marine chronometers (all of which were large clocks rather than watches), since the wood is self-lubricating. The use of lignum vitae eliminates the need for horological lubricating oil; 18th-century horological oil would become viscous and reduce the accuracy of a timepiece under unfavourable conditions (including those that prevail at sea).
For the same reason it was widely used in water-lubricated shaft bearings for ships and hydro-electric power plants, and in the stern-tube bearings of ship propellers  until the 1960s saw the introduction of sealed white metal bearings. According to the San Francisco Maritime National Park Association website, the shaft bearings on the WWII submarine USS Pampanito (SS-383) were made of this wood. The aft main shaft strut bearings for USS Nautilus (SSN-571), the world’s first nuclear-powered submarine, were composed of this wood. Also, the bearings in the original 1920s turbines of the Conowingo hydroelectric plant on the lower Susquehanna River were made from lignum vitae. The shaft bearings on the horizontal turbines at the Pointe du Bois generating station in Manitoba are made from lignum vitae. Other hydroelectric plant turbine bearings, many of them still in service, were fabricated with lignum vitae and are too numerous to list here.
The United Railroads of San Francisco (an ancestor of the San Francisco Municipal Railway) began installing lignum vitae insulators to support heavy feeder wires for their trolley system in 1904. The reason for the adoption of lignum vitae was its ability to withstand the high stress at high temperature, a problem posed by heavy cables turning corners heated by high current overloads. Many of these insulators survived the 1906 earthquake and fires, despite temperatures high enough to soften the iron poles and melt the copper cables. Many of these lasted into the 1970s with a small number remaining in service into the first decade of the 2000s (most of these came down when the overhead 600 V DC feeders were replaced with a new system of underground feeders,
This article says:
Janka Wood Hardness Test Chart
Below you will see a list of most of the different types of wood on a Janka hardness test chart. The Janka hardness test measures the force (pounds-force is abbreviated “lbf) required to push a small steel ball halfway into a piece of wood. Most of the types of wood below lead to a Wikipedia article that will teach you more about each type of type of wood:
|5,060 lbf||Australian Buloke|
|4,800 lbf||Schinopsis brasiliensis, Quebracho, Barauna, Chamacoco|
|4,570 lbf||Schinopsis balansae, Quebracho Colorado, Red Quebracho|
|4,500 lbf||Lignum vitae, Guayacan, Pockenholz|
|3,840 lbf||Piptadenia Macrocarpa, Curupay, Angico Preto, Brazilian Tiger Mahogany|
|3,800 lbf||Snakewood, Letterhout, Piratinera Guinensis|
|3,700 lbf||Brazilian Olivewood|
|3,692 lbf||Brazilian Ebony|
|3,684 lbf||Ipê, Brazilian Walnut, Lapacho|
|3,680 lbf||African Pearwood, Moabi|
|3,664 lbf||Grey Ironbark|
|3,650 lbf||Bolivian Cherry|
|3,540 lbf||Cumaru, Brazilian Teak|
|3,417 lbf||Sucupira, Brazilian Chestnut, Tiete Chestnut|
|3,190 lbf||Massaranduba, Brazilian Redwood, Paraju|
|3,000 lbf||Strand Woven Bamboo|
|2,697 lbf||Red Mahogany, Turpentine|
|2,680 lbf||Live Oak|
|2,670 lbf||Southern Chestnut|
|2,473 lbf||Spotted Gum|
|2,350 lbf||Brazilian Cherry, Jatoba|
|2,330 lbf||Golden Teak|
|2,240 lbf||Guatambú, Kyrandy, Balfourodendron riedelianum|
|2,200 lbf||Santos Mahogany, Bocote, Cabreuva, Honduran Rosewood|
|2,160 lbf||Brazilian Koa|
|2,040 lbf||Osage Orange|
|2,023 lbf||Sydney Blue Gum|
|1,850 lbf||Goncalo Alves, Tigerwood|
|1,820 lbf||Hickory, Pecan, Satinwood|
|1,810 lbf||Afzelia, Doussie, Australian Wormy Chestnut|
|1,725 lbf||African Padauk|
|1,700 lbf||Black Locust|
|1,686 lbf||Highland Beech|
|1,680 lbf||Red Mulberry|
|1,630 lbf||Wenge, Red Pine, Hornbeam|
|1,570 lbf||True Pine, Timborana|
|1,510 lbf||Sapele, Sapelli, Kupa’y|
|1,470 lbf||Sweet Birch|
|1,450 lbf||Hard maple, Sugar Maple|
|1,390 lbf||Caribbean Walnut|
|1,390 lbf||Kentucky coffeetree|
|1,380 lbf||Natural Bamboo (represents one species)|
|1,375 lbf||Australian Cypress|
|1,360 lbf||White Oak|
|1,350 lbf||Tasmanian oak|
|1,349 lbf||Ribbon Gum|
|1,320 lbf||Ash (White)|
|1,300 lbf||American Beech|
|1,290 lbf||Red Oak (Northern)|
|1,280 lbf||Caribbean Heart Pine|
|1,260 lbf||Yellow Birch, Iroko|
|1,225 lbf||Heart pine|
|1,220 lbf||Carapa guianensis, Brazilian Mesquite|
|1,180 lbf||Carbonized Bamboo (represents one species)|
|1,125 lbf||Brazilian Eucalyptus, Rose Gum|
|1,120 lbf||English Oak|
|1,100 lbf||Siberian Larch|
|1,080 lbf||Peruvian Walnut|
|1,010 lbf||Black Walnut, North American Walnut|
|950 lbf||Black Cherry, Imbuia|
|950 lbf||Red Maple|
|910 lbf||Paper Birch|
|900 lbf||Eastern Red Cedar|
|870 lbf||Southern Yellow Pine (Longleaf)|
|840 lbf||Lacewood, Leopardwood|
|830 lbf||African Mahogany|
|800 lbf||Mahogany, Honduran Mahogany|
|720 lbf||Box Elder|
|710 lbf||Radiata Pine|
|700 lbf||Silver Maple|
|690 lbf||Southern Yellow Pine (Loblolly and Shortleaf)|
|660 lbf||Douglas Fir|
|626 lbf||Western Juniper|
|590 lbf||Alder (Red)|
|420 lbf||Western White Pine|
|380 lbf||Eastern White Pine|
Mesquite is 2,345 lbf
According to this website:
1. Australian Buloke
An ironwood tree that is native to Australia, this wood comes from a species of tree occurring across most of Eastern and Southern Australia. Known as the hardest wood in the world, this particular type has a Janka hardness of 5,060 lbf.
2. Schinopsis brasiliensis
A species of flowering plant in the cashew family, the schinopsis brasiliensis originates in Brazil and creates an extremely tough wood of 4,800 lbf. Due to this immense hardness and strength, this wood is often used in construction.
3. Schinopsis balansae
A hardwood tree, the schinopsis balansae is a tree which makes up large areas of forest in Argentina and Paraguay. Reaching a whopping 24 metres in height at times, the tree’s wood is extremely hard, at 4,570 lbf.
4. Lignum vitae
A trade wood, lignum vitae comes from trees of the genus Guaiacum which are indigenous to the Caribbean as well as the northern coast of South America. This wood has been used since the 16th century, combining strength, density and toughness at an impressive 4,500 lbf in the Janka hardness test.
5. Piptadenia Macrocarpa
This wood has a Janka hardness rating of 3,840 lbf, making it suitable for a variety of construction projects. It comes from a tree native to areas including Argentina, Bolivia and Peru.
Snakewood has a Janka rating of 3,800 lbf, and is an exotic hardwood which is particularly prized for the highly figured grain it exhibits. Originating from South America, it is used in a variety of projects requiring tough, dense wood.
7. Brazilian Olivewood
With a Janka rating of 3,700, this wood is an exotic, attractive choice. Combining its pleasing aesthetic with properties including toughness and strength, exotic household furniture can seriously benefit from its presence.
8. Brazilian Ebony
A dense, heavy wood originating from Paraguay, Argentina and Brazil, this wood has a Janka rating of 3,692. Particularly good for the construction of decking and planking, this wood is not only hard and durable, but shock-resistant, making it an attractive yet extremely practical and cost-effective choice in the long-run.
9. Brazilian Walnut
Originating in Central and South America, this wood has a grain that varies from straight to irregular or interlocked. With a Janka hardness rating of 3,684, this wood can be used for a number of projects, whether indoor or outdoor.
10. African Pearwood
This is species of tree is found in Angola, Cameroon, the Republic of Congo, Gabon and Nigeria. With a natural habitat of tropical moist lowland forests, the wood itself has a Janka hardness rating of 3,680 lbf.
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84.5 lbs/ft3 (1,355 kg/m3)
Pieces are very seldom seen for sale, as this tree is too small to produce commercially viable lumber. Like the unrelated Desert Ironwood, Black Ironwood is an excellent choice for small turning projects.
Olneya ironwood is very hard and heavy. Its density is greater than water and thus sinks; it does not float downstream in washes, and must be moved by current motion. One popular usage for the wood is for knife handles, since its hardness, grain, and coloring is ideal.
Due to its considerable hardness, processing desert ironwood is difficult. Final treatment of the wood with solutions can also be difficult because of its high density.
Olneya tesota is an indicator species of the Sonoran Desert region. The Sonoran Desert has one other species with the identical north-south, and east-west range. The seasonally migrating lesser long-nosed bat follows the bloom season of various species from south to north and extends into the same regions of the Sonoran Desert as Olneya; (their ranging maps are virtually identical). The bat ranges from southern Baja California del Sur and north into the southwestern United States
It is satisfying to touch Mesquite. I would like to bite it if I was younger…
The Ryobi planet is junk. The belt disappeared along with the tensioner. The Silver Eagle is awesome at least hasen’t broke yet. Electric is nice…
This article is interesting:
“After 9/11, the Bush administration identified two clear threats to America’s safety, one foreign and the other domestic. The foreign threat was Al Qaeda and its allies. The domestic threat was “bad intelligence,” the (alleged) failure of our nation’s best spies and analysts to see the attacks coming, much less stop them. And so it was decided: The country needed better intelligence—fast. The coffers opened and cash began to flow, with the ostensible aim of helping the government better understand the world. Most of the funds went to the familiar (or soon-to-be-familiar) nodes of the national-security state: CIA, FBI, DOD, NSA.”
This is a good article:
By Dr. Roy W. Spencer
“Even before Hurricane Florence made landfall somewhere near the border of North and South Carolina, predicted damage from potentially catastrophic flooding from the storm was already being blamed on global warming.”
Writing for NBC News, Kristina Dahl contended, “With each new storm, we are forced to question whether this is our new, climate change-fueled reality, and to ask ourselves what we can do to minimize the toll from supercharged storms.”
The theory is that tropical cyclones have slowed down in their speed by about 10 percent over the past 70 years due to a retreat of the jet stream farther north, depriving storms of steering currents and making them stall and keep raining in one location. This is what happened with Hurricane Harvey in Houston last year……
“Denzel then came across a study that showed that using these breaks for movement also lowered blood glucose and insulin levels in office workers. (Just recently the same researchers found that moving every 25 minutes, along with a 30-minute daily walk, also reduces blood lipid levels). So that’s the interval he encourages his clients to work with. Set a timer to work for 25 minutes, and then get up to walk, stretch, and move around for 5 minutes before getting back to work. (If getting up every 25 minutes sounds like too much for you, Denzel recommends starting with getting up for a few minutes every hour and working up to that higher frequency.)”
and another quote,
Jill Henderzahs-Mason, physical therapist at the Mayo Clinic Healthy Living Program agrees that moving every half hour is ideal. “At the bare minimum, you should get up and change positions for at least a minute or two,” she says. Holding the same position for hours every day will break down the body over time.
check engine light went off but shift light still working…need to fix that.
AutoZone manager in Henderson Boulder Highway traded my new sensors for working ones. Wish they could test sensors and sell more reliable products. Could have A mobile service replacing sensors batteries and alternators. And tires…