The Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has reached its operational power design level by running a neutron production cycle at 1.4 megawatts. (Earlier post.) Higher power provides more neutrons for researchers who use the facility to study a wide range of materials. The achievement marks a new operational milestone for neutron scattering in the US and opens the door to studying significantly smaller materials with greater complexity. The power increase was enabled by the combination of extensive improvements to the linear accelerator, including the recent replacement of the radio frequency quadrupole—the first accelerating structure of the accelerator’s frontend assembly, as well as improvements to the liquid mercury target. Incorporating target vessel modifications such as gas injection of helium bubbles into the target’s mercury flow significantly reduced stresses induced by the beam’s immense high-energy pulses. In addition, the SNS operations team executed a Target Management Plan developed in 2016 that paves the way for higher powers by operating three targets a year for sustainable reliability. Constructed in 2006, SNS is a one-of-a-kind pulsed accelerator-based neutron scattering facility that provides powerful state-of-the-art capabilities to thousands of researchers around the world to study energy and materials at the atomic scale. The facility produces neutrons by launching protons down a linear accelerator and into a liquid mercury target. Upon impact, a “spall” of neutrons is created which are then sent to surrounding high powered instruments. Neutrons scatter off atoms within a sample, revealing fundamental information about how the atoms within the system are behaving and how much distance is between them. Science discoveries only made possible by neutrons at SNS include unprecedented insights into the exotic behavior of the magnetic Majorana fermion—a promising building block for topological quantum computing; mitigation of air pollution by characterizing a metal organic framework material’s ability to remove harmful nitrogen dioxide from the atmosphere; and first-of-a-kind experiments performing real-time in situ measurements on a running gas-powered engine.
The Day of the Lord
5 Now, brothers and sisters, about times and dates we do not need to write to you, 2 for you know very well that the day of the Lord will come like a thief in the night. 3 While people are saying, “Peace and safety,” destruction will come on them suddenly, as labor pains on a pregnant woman, and they will not escape.
4 But you, brothers and sisters, are not in darkness so that this day should surprise you like a thief. 5 You are all children of the light and children of the day. We do not belong to the night or to the darkness. 6 So then, let us not be like others, who are asleep, but let us be awake and sober. 7 For those who sleep, sleep at night, and those who get drunk, get drunk at night. 8 But since we belong to the day, let us be sober, putting on faith and love as a breastplate, and the hope of salvationas a helmet. 9 For God did not appoint us to suffer wrath but to receive salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ. 10 He died for us so that, whether we are awake or asleep, we may live together with him. 11 Therefore encourage one another and build each other up, just as in fact you are doing.
12 Now we ask you, brothers and sisters, to acknowledge those who work hard among you, who care for you in the Lord and who admonish you.13 Hold them in the highest regard in love because of their work. Live in peace with each other. 14 And we urge you, brothers and sisters, warn those who are idle and disruptive, encourage the disheartened, help the weak, be patient with everyone. 15 Make sure that nobody pays back wrong for wrong, but always strive to do what is good for each other and for everyone else.
16 Rejoice always, 17 pray continually,18 give thanks in all circumstances; for this is God’s will for you in Christ Jesus.
19 Do not quench the Spirit. 20 Do not treat prophecies with contempt 21 but test them all; hold on to what is good,22 reject every kind of evil.
23 May God himself, the God of peace,sanctify you through and through. May your whole spirit, soul and body be kept blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. 24 The one who callsyou is faithful, and he will do it.
25 Brothers and sisters, pray for us.26 Greet all God’s people with a holy kiss. 27 I charge you before the Lord to have this letter read to all the brothers and sisters.
28 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you.New International Version (NIV)
According to the scenarios developed in this study, a high penetration of electric vehicles worldwide (up to 75% of the stock of vehicles in 2050) would not entail a geological supply risk, as reserves are sufficient in the long run.On the other hand, this could lead to a marked decrease in the safety margin of lithium supply—the ratio between the cumulative consumption and current reserves—and a possible significant volatility of lithium prices by 2050. More generally, vulnerabilities economic, industrial, geopolitical or environmental issues are still possible. Production is currently concentrated between Australia (40%), Argentina and Chile (50% between them). The latter two countries belong to the lithium triangle (Argentina, Bolivia and Chile), which represents about 55% of the world’s resources. The strategies of these 3 countries will have a decisive weight in the medium- and long-term capacity to supply lithium to industrial players, especially in Europe. Further, vulnerabilities could emerge from increased competition among lithium buyers. China, which has put in place a policy of security of supply, will have competitive advantages and will be able to favor its internal market to the detriment of the importing countries. Developments in China’s trade policy will therefore become an essential parameter of the market, according to the report.
As a result, demand is expected to exceed supply already in 2020 and the EU must take steps to boost supply and curb demand without hindering the growth in electric vehicles, according to a new JRC report presented at the EU Raw Material Week in Brussels. Cobalt, a critical raw material for electric transport
The Congress for Cultural FreedomFounded26 June 1950 Dissolved1979 (as International Association for Cultural Freedom) LocationParis Origins
Central Intelligence Agency Area served Europe, Asia, Africa, North America, Latin America, Australia Methodconferences, journals, seminars Key people Melvin J. Lasky, Nikolai Nabokov, Michael Josselson EndowmentCIA to 1966; Ford Foundation to 1979 The Congress for Cultural Freedom (CCF) was an anti-communist advocacy group founded in 1950.
At its height, the CCF was active in thirty-five countries. In 1966 it was revealed that the United States Central Intelligence Agency was instrumental in the establishment and funding of the group.
Historian Frances Stonor Saunders writes (1999): “Whether they liked it or not, whether they knew it or not, there were few writers, poets, artists, historians, scientists, or critics in postwar Europe whose names were not in some way linked to this covert enterprise.” A different slant on the origins and work of the Congress is offered by Peter Coleman in his Liberal Conspiracy (1989) where he talks about a struggle for the mind “of Postwar Europe” and the world at large.[3