How and Why News is Made

First it is better to consider why the news is made. By looking at the Lippman vs Dewey frame we can orientate ourselves. This frame is similar to the Federalist vs Anti Federalist frame and goes all the way back to Plato. Today we can see this in the climate change topic. Technocrats IPCC on one side and freedom loving, oil burning, population increasing masses on the other side.

The first modern press releases[1] were created by Ivy Lee.[2] Lee’s agency was working with the Pennsylvania Railroad at the time of the 1906 Atlantic City train wreck. Ivy Lee and the company collaborated to issue the first press release directly to journalists, before other versions of the story, or suppositions, could be spread among them and reported. He used a press release, in addition to inviting journalists and photographers to the scene as a means of fostering open communication with the media.[3]

Public relations pioneer Edward Bernays later refined the creation and use of press releases.

Next consider how news is made.

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In the 1920s, Lippmann (in his 20s) was a journalist and social commentator who dined with presidents and occasionally wrote their speeches. Dewey (in his 60s) was a philosopher at Columbia University. The period was one in which there was growing belief in the fundamentally irrational nature of humankind, and doubts about the nature and possibility of a democracy that could be something more than rule by mob or demagoguery

Lippmann argued for an intellectual elite that would apply scientific management to democracy, in order to tame it. His philosophy was a blend of liberalism and elitism. Dewey, on the other hand, had a lot of time for Science, did not see Science as standing outside of and above human existence – for him, scientific knowledge was human-made knowledge.   The problems of democracy were to do with bureaucratization and impersonalization of industrial life, from the power of economic forces to secure their interests in government either directly through compulsion or threat, or indirectly through the manipulation of public opinion. The cure was a system of communication that connected with citizenship and the press. For Dewey, the answer to the problems of democracy was a more participatory form of democracy.

Walter Lippmann and John Dewey (Notes from Carl R. Bybee, 1997, Media, Public Opinion and Governance: Burning Down the Barn to Roast the Pig, Module 10, Unit 56 of the MA in Mass Communications, University of Leicester)

http://www.infoamerica.org/teoria_articulos/lippmann_dewey.htm

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The modern newspaper is born on November 29, 1814, when The London Times became the first newspaper to be printed by steam, allowing for larger circulation at lower cost. On the first day of the machine’s operation, troops were hired to prevent violence by soon-to-be-unemployed print shop workers.
News is not produced because something happens.
News is produced to fill the “news hole”
Journalists follow routines which produce news
News routines form the “news net” that catches some events but not others
Some Basics about News
Media mediate. They cannot relay reality, or raw information. They
interpret reality.
News is stories: events have to be turned into stories before they can be news events. And stories often work because they are familiar, not because they are new.
News cannot be absolutely “unbiased.” Calling news biased is like saying the sky is blue.
News is produced to fill newsprint and TV time, not because something happens
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I think making news is like making a cake. First you take the raw ingredients press releases from companies,  papers from Universities or NGO or Governments, whistle blower info, raw data that fits your agenda. Very little investigative or original research. Definetly not someone just wondering around and looking at what is happening. Reality has nothing to do with it.

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